Their aim is to explain biomechanical principles in relation to current material properties and contemporary techniques, in which they are successful. The first chapter covers general physical principles that form the basis for the descriptions relating to tooth movement throughout the rest of the book. The second chapter applies these theories to orthodontics and is supplemented by evidence-based references including helpful tables to summarize material properties. The remaining chapters deal with clinical orthodontic scenarios such as anchorage, friction, vertical and transverse problems, and space closure.
There is a bias in these chapters towards the segmental approach, which is clearly favoured by the authors. Straightwire mechanics, probably a more widely used technique among current postgraduate students in orthodontics, are included as an alternative.
In this sense, the text provides an interesting approach to familiar orthodontic clinical scenarios. In summary, this book, which is aimed at the orthodontic postgraduate student, provides a useful reference for general physical principles as well as mechanical techniques for pre-adjusted edgewise systems. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
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When these fundamental requirements are met, biomechanical studies can provide powerful tools to explain the function of the body and to predict the success or failure of treatments prior to using them on patients. If these are not met, any biomechanical study is suspect, and requires to be interpreted with great caution. Yet, no current approach to numerically predicting tissue adaptation has been correlated with clinically relevant situations [ 47 ]. Furthermore, biomechanics should not be considered the study of the mechanical aspects of the structure and function of biological systems because biological systems do not have mechanical aspects [ 2 ].
Living tissues properties differ from those of non-living tissues. The key distinctions are that living tissue is able to sense the environment, respond to their external environment in a seemingly infinite number of ways, and adapt over time. A living tissue is not static, but through internal processes alters certain of its characteristics in response to external stimuli [ 48 ]; some living tissues are able to repair themselves, and modify their behavior in both the short term and the long term [ 2 , 19 , 47 - 49 ].
Failure to recognize living and non-living tissue may be a major source of scatter in biomechanical studies [ 19 ]. A valid study should not contain flaws and should be internally consistent. For biomechanical studies, validity requires a context of adaptation and tissue material clarification that should be explicitly reported.
The researcher should recognize and should inform the readers for their study design and limitations [ 50 ]. Biomechanical studies should also have clinical relevance, which should be meaningful for the clinicians and their patients [ 47 ]. Several key parameters are required for a biomechanical study to be clinically relevant in orthopaedics [ 47 ]. The mechanical parameter chosen should be a surrogate for relevant biological behavior; obviously, the choice of the mechanical parameter depends on the question being asked.
The mechanical parameter should also be obtained with physiological force magnitudes and directions.
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Most studies apply a single loading regimen; instead, a set of loading regimens that represent the entire range of repetitive loadings experienced in vivo should be used. Load magnitudes should not be chosen for convenience. Tissue type living or not and its tolerance to the mechanical parameter should be clarified and discussed in relation to the experiment. Tissue adaptation to the mechanical parameters over time should be addressed for the biomechanical study to be clinically relevant [ 47 ].
If the above parameters are not addressed when designing a study or addressing its limitations, the results of that investigation should be regarded with caution. In contrast, if the above requirements are met, the power of the biomechanical studies increases and their results are important and valid for clinical decision making and to predict success or failure of treatments prior to attempting them in patients [ 47 ]. Novel research directions should be emphasized in future clinical orthopaedic biomechanical studies for their direct clinical application, with emphasis on scientific integrity and clinical relevance.
Readers have to critically and properly interpret the results of biomechanical studies.
Biomechanics and Esthetic Strategies in Clinical Orthodontics
The authors should clarify the tissue type, tolerance and adaptation should provide key questions that are clinically relevant, and should inform the readers that biomechanical models have inherent limitations. Limitations should not be suppressed but rather discussed in the discussion section of the article; if not, the study results should be regarded with caution. Knudson D. Fundamentals of biomechanics 2 nd edition. Hatze H. J Biomech. Medicine: an illustrated history. Harry N.
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Biomechanics and Galileo Galilei. Fung YC. Trans Am Soc Mech Eng. Biomechanics: its scope, history, and some problems of continuum mechanics in physiology. Appl Mech Rev. Biomechanics: mechanical properties of living tissues. New York: Springer-Verlag. The clinical relevance of biomechanics.
Biomechanics in Orthopaedics
Neurol Clin. Carter H. Edited, London, Chapman and Dodd, Ltd.
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